4 November] 1874 – 7 February 1920) was a polar explorer and commander in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War. Kolchak was the only minister that was offered that protection by the British. ", Sovietskaya Rossiya, an official organ of the Soviet Bureau established by Ludwig Martens, quoted a Menshevik organ, Vsegda Vperyod, alleging that Kolchak's men used mass floggings and razed entire villages to the ground with artillery fire. As a military commander he was unable to make successful strategic plans or to coordinate with other White Army generals such as Yudenich or Denikin. Joining a fourteen man cabinet, he was a prestige figure; the government hoped to play on the respect he had with the Allies, especially the head of the British military mission, General Alfred Knox. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The northern army under the Russian Anatoly Pepelyayev and the Czech Rudolf Gajda seized Perm in late December 1918 and after a pause other forces spread out from this strategic base. The newly formed Red Army proved unwilling to fight and retreated, allowing the Whites to advance to a line stretching from Glazov through Orenburg to Uralsk. Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak, (born Nov. 4 [Nov. 16, New Style], 1874, St. Petersburg, Russia—died Feb. 7, 1920, Irkutsk, Siberia), Arctic explorer and naval officer, who was recognized in 1919–20 by the “Whites” as supreme ruler of Russia; after … When the news was received by the then Naval Minister of the Provisional Government, Alexander Kerensky, he ordered Kolchak to leave immediately for America (Admiral James H. Glennon, member of American mission, headed by Senator Elihu Root invited Kolchak to go to America in order to give the American Navy Department information on Bosphorus). Omissions? Her mother Daria Fyodorovna was the daughter of Major-General, Director of the Forest Institute F. A. Kamensky, sister of sculptor F. F. Kamensky. He was wounded in the final battles for Port Arthur and taken as a prisoner of war to Nagasaki, where he spent four months. Every Man a King: One of Huey Long's political slogans, referring to his wealth redistribution programs. Admiral Aleksandr V. Kolchak (born 16 November 1874) was the former supreme military commander of all White Russian forces during the Russian Civil War and head of the Provisional All-Russian Government immediately afterward, before fleeing to Siberia following a failed coup in 1924. Kolchak was born in Saint Petersburg in 1874. They held that line until October, but the constant loss of men killed or wounded was beyond the White rate of replacement. Despite the arrival of a contrary order from Moscow, Admiral Kolchak was condemned to death along with his Prime Minister, Viktor Pepelyayev. Kolchak was arrested and ended up in the hands of the Bolsheviks who executed him. I call upon you, citizens, to unite and to sacrifice your all, if necessary, in the struggle with Bolshevism. Not far from Irkutsk, he received notice of the start of war with the Empire of Japan and hastily summoned his bride and her father to Siberia by telegram for a wedding before heading directly to Port Arthur. Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (Russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, 16 November [O.S. M. I. Smirnov. He also was tasked with the job of countering any U-boat threat and to begin planning an invasion of the Bosphorus (which was never carried out). He was educated for a naval career, graduating from the Naval college in 1894 and joining the 7th Naval Battalion … He was named Supreme Ruler (Verkhovnyi Pravitel), and he promoted himself to full admiral. On 19 August 1917 Kolchak with several officers left Petrograd for Britain and the United States as a quasi-official military observer. The "For Faith and Fatherland" movement has attempted to rehabilitate his reputation. He was a brilliant man, and learned quickly. The Council of Ministers, having all the power in its hands, has invested me, Admiral Alexander Kolchak, with this power. His father was a retired major-general of the Marine Artillery, who was actively engaged in the siege of Sevastopol in 1854–55 and after his retirement worked as an engineer in ordnance works near St. Petersburg. Both prisoners were brought before a firing squad in the early morning of 7 February 1920. Kolchak’s wife, Sophia Fedorovna Kolchak, was born in 1876 in Kamenetz-Podolsk province. My chief aims are the organisation of a fighting force, the overthrow of Bolshevism, and the establishment of law and order, so that the Russian people may be able to choose a form of government in accordance with its desire and to realise the high ideas of liberty and freedom. In 1910 he returned to the Naval General Staff, and in 1912 he was assigned to serve in the Russian Baltic Fleet. He stated that the only way to save the country was to reestablish discipline and restore capital punishment in the army and navy. As there was a continued flood of refugees eastwards, typhus became a serious problem. There he presented his view on the condition of the Russian armed forces and their complete demoralisation. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Aleksandr-Vasilyevich-Kolchak, RT Russiapedia - Biography of Aleksandr Kolchak. In documents submitted to the Militar… There was brutal repression committed by Kolchak's regime: in Yekaterinburg alone the Great Soviet Encyclopedia alleges that more than 25,000 people were shot or tortured to death. Some of these organisations asked Kolchak to accept the leadership. The arrested SR politicians were expelled from Siberia and ended up in Europe. Kolchak's agrarian policy was directed toward restoring private land ownership. The former Tsarist laws were restored. Kolchak took part in the rebuilding of the Imperial Russian Navy, which had been almost completely destroyed during the war. American and Japanese troops occupied Vladivostok on the Pacific. For his explorations Kolchak received the highest award of the Russian Geographical Society. The remaining cabinet members met and voted for Kolchak to become the head of government with emergency powers. Based in Vladivostok, these vessels were sent on a cartographic expedition to the Bering Strait and Cape Dezhnev. His armies, though at first successful, eventually were routed. Kolchak was removed from command of the fleet in June and travelled to Petrograd. Alexander Kolchak was one of the White leaders during the civil war that followed the November 1917 Revolution. Kolchak was a supporter of the Provisional Government and returned to Russia, through Vladivostok, in 1918. Kolchak visited the American Fleet and its ports, and decided to return to Russia via Japan. Admiral Essenwas not satisfied to remain only on the defensive and ordered Kolchak to prepare a scheme for attacking the ap… The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. Kolchak had also aroused the dislike of potential allies including the Czechoslovak Legion and the Polish 5th Rifle Division. At the outbreak of World War I, Kolchak was flag captain of the Baltic fleet. He was decorated with the Order of St. Anna 4th class for the exploit. His study, The Ices of the Kara and Siberian Seas, was printed in the Proceedings of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences and is considered the most important work on this subject. He failed to unite all the disparate elements. The Bolsheviks had also invaded Estonia only to be met by local troops, a British naval squadron, Yudenich’s Russian nationalists, and even General Rüdiger von der Goltz’s German veterans seeking…, …Siberia; in November 1918 Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak assumed command of this army and became the dictator of the territories where it was deployed. As was mentioned above, the American commander, General Graves, disliked Kolchak and refused to lend him any military aid at all. After the outbreak of war initially on the flagship Pogranichnik, Kolchak oversaw the laying of extensive coastal defensive minefields and commanded the naval forces in the Gulf of Riga. In November 1918, the unpopular regional government was overthrown in a British sponsored coup d'etat. Kolchak's good relations with General Alfred Knox meant that his forces were partly armed, munitioned and uniformed by the British. Corrections? Kolchak was then promised safe passage by the Czechoslovaks to the British military mission in Irkutsk. Meanwhile the British forces at Murmansk were at war with the Communists. It is no longer possible for any sane man to regard the campaigns of Kolchak, Yudenich, Denikin and Wrangel otherwise than as tragic blunders of colossal dimensions. In October 1918 he went to Omsk, where he became war minister in the non-Bolshevik government. Birthplace: Bila Tserkva, Kiev Oblast, Russian Empire. The squad fired and both men fell. His poor health (rheumatism – a consequence of his polar expeditions) – led to his repatriation before the end of the war. Kolchak joined the opposition to the Bolsheviks, commonly called the "Whites" (the Bolsheviks were commonly called the "Reds"). , His government was based in Omsk, in southwestern Siberia. While one might usually associate Roman descent to Mussolini and his Roman-revival style of rhetoric, there is a much odder case in the world where, from the frozen shores of Novo-Arkhangelsk, in Aleyska, a wanna-be Caesar, Alexander Kolchak, styling himself 'Supreme Leader and Commander-in-Chief of All Russian Land and Sea Forces' for all the good that gives him, and his court … Aleksandr Kolchak was a Russian naval commander, polar explorer and later head of part of the anti-Bolshevik White forces during the Russian Civil War. Freed from the geographical constraints of the mountains, the Reds made rapid progress, capturing Chelyabinsk on 25 July and forcing the White forces to the north and south to fall back to avoid being isolated. They (Kolchak, Kornilov, Denikin and Wrangel) were first of all patriots with a deep love for their country and worked for its salvation without any regard for self-advancement. He was unable to win diplomatic recognition from any nation in the world, even Britain (though the British did support him to some degree). For example, he lost track of the imperial gold reserves and much of it disappeared. 32 (Jan., 1933), pp. Problems of Polar Research: a Series of Papers by Thirty-one Authors. The transfer of power to Semyonov proved a particularly ill-considered move. Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (Russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, 16 November [O.S. Admiral Kolchak was not successful from the time of his taking the position of Supreme Ruler until his death, though it must be borne in mind that he operated under very difficult circumstances. The SRs opened negotiations with the Bolsheviks and in January 1919 the SR People's Army joined with the Red Army. By August 1916, as a vice admiral, he was commanding the fleet in the Black Sea. He was soon transferred to the Far East, s… In June 1917, after the February revolution, he resigned under pressure and went to the United States. , British Marxist historian Edward Hallett Carr wrote,. He was soon transferred to the Far East, serving in Vladivostok from 1895 to 1899. After the February Revolution in 1917, the Black Sea fleet descended into political chaos. "Admiral Kolchak". Background Checks Next he tried, unsuccessfully, to coordinate White Russian forces in Manchuria. 188 of 19 July 1919). Postage stamp issued in 1919 with the inscription "For United Russia – Supreme leader of Russia Kolchak". Project of the Russian government Сoat of arms. , Kolchak acknowledged all of Russia's debts, returned factories and plants to their owners, granted concessions to foreign investors, dispersed trade unions, persecuted Marxists, and disbanded the soviets. After considerable hardship, Kolchak returned in December 1902; Eduard Toll with three other members went further north and were lost. Ultimately, the British Foreign Office decided that Kolchak could do more for the Allied cause by toppling Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks and bringing Russia back into the war on the Allied side. It provided a term of five years of prison for "individuals considered a threat to the public order because of their ties in any way with the Bollshevik revolt." ", On 11 April 1919, the Kolchak's government adopted Regulation no. In the case of unauthorized return from exile, there could be hard labor from 4 to 8 years. After the outbreak of war initially on the flagship Pogranichnik, Kolchak oversaw the laying of extensive coastal defensive minefields and commanded the naval forces in the Gulf of Riga. A Russian naval commander, polar explorer and head of the anti-Bolshevik fight during the Russian Civil War, Aleksandr Kolchak is undoubtedly one of the most controversial figures of Russian history. There was prominent underground resistance in the regions controlled by Kolchak's government. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... …and the government of Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak at Omsk in Siberia. Cambridge University press, 1996. Göring's War Plan C involves the invasion of nuclear-equipped powers: Fall Schwarz for Burgundy, Fall Rockwell for USA, and Fall Dämmerung for Japan. In 2004, the Constitutional Court of Russia returned the Kolchak case to the military court for another hearing. Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak, (born Nov. 4 [Nov. 16, New Style], 1874, St. Petersburg, Russia—died Feb. 7, 1920, Irkutsk, Siberia), Arctic explorer and naval officer, who was recognized in 1919–20 by the “Whites” as supreme ruler of Russia; after his overthrow he was put to death by the Bolsheviks. Kolchak was educated for a naval career, graduating from the Naval Cadet Corps in 1894 and joining the 7th Naval Battalion of the city. The Taseev Soviet Partisan Republic was founded south-east of Yeniseysk in early 1919. Kolchak took part in designing the special icebreakers Taimyr and Vaigach, launched in 1909 spring 1910. During the autumn and winter of 1914–1915, Russian destroyers and cruisers started a series of dangerous night operations, laying mines at the approaches to Kiel and Danzig. Kolchak failed to convince potentially friendly Finland join with him against the Bolsheviks. Signature Supreme Ruler Alexander Kolchak, He issued the following manifesto to the population:. 373–387. Kolchak took part in two Arctic expeditions and for a while was nicknamed "Kolchak-Poliarnyi" ("Kolchak the Polar"). Upon hearing of the October Revolution, Kolchak offered to enlist in the British Army to continue the struggle. He was approached and refused to take power. According to eyewitnesses, Kolchak was entirely calm and unafraid, "like an Englishman." The Socialist-Revolutionary (SR) Directory leader and members were arrested on 18 November by a troop of Cossacks under ataman Krasilnikov. Aleksandr Kolchak was born in the village of Aleksandrovskoye, near Saint Petersburg. In February 1920, some 20,000 partisans took control of the Amur region. I crossed myself with tears of joy. One of their first actions was to dismiss Kolchak. Those villages whose population meets troops with arms, burn down the villages and shoot the adult males without exception. Ufa was taken by the Red Army on 9 June and later that month the Red forces under Tukhachevsky broke through the Urals. Alexander Kolchak was born on 16 Nov 1874 in the village of Alexandrovskoye in the suburbs of St. Petersburg in the famil… The White Army under the command of General Vladimir Kappel advanced toward Irkutsk while Kolchak was interrogated by a commission of five men representing the Revolutionary Committee (REVKOM) during nine days between 21 January and 6 February. Kolchak was unfamiliar with combat on land and gave the majority of the strategic planning to D.A. Stanford University Press. The bodies were kicked and prodded down an escarpment and dumped under the ice of the frozen Angara River. 1935. After decades of being vilified by the Soviet government, Kolchak is now a controversial historic figure in post-Soviet Russia. Initially, the British were inclined to accept Kolchak’s offer, and there were plans to send Kolchak to Mesopotamia (modern Iraq). They withdrew from the conflict in October 1918 but remained a presence; their foreign adviser Maurice Janin regarded Kolchak as an instrument of the British and was pro-SR. Kolchak could not count on Japanese aid either; the Japanese feared he would interfere with their occupation of Far Eastern Russia and refused him assistance, creating a buffer state to the east of Lake Baikal under Cossack control. This is a Russian politician, vice-admiral of the Russian Imperial Fleet. , In an excerpt from the order of the government of Yenisei county in Irkutsk province, General. Travelling a section of track controlled by the Czechoslovaks he was sidetracked and stopped; by December his train had only reached Nizhneudinsk. He was summarily executed and his body thrown into the Angara River. Kolchak was born in 1874 in the city of St. Petersburg. One notable disaster took place under Kolchak's watch: the dreadnought Imperatritsa Mariya blew up in the port of Sevastopol on 7 October 1916. When Omsk fell to the Red Army on Nov. 14, 1919, Kolchak transferred his headquarters to Irkutsk, but on Jan. 4, 1920, he was forced to resign when a Socialist Revolutionary–Menshevik group seized power in that city. View the profiles of people named Alexandr Kolchak. Sophia and Alexander got married on March 5, 1904 in Irkutsk. He joined the Russian Navy and served in Vladivostok (1895-1899).  Among his awards are the Saint George Gold Sword for Bravery, given for his actions in the battle of Port Arthur and the Great Gold Constantine Medal from the Russian Geographic Society.. A Kolchak biographical film, titled Admiral (Адмиралъ), was released in Russia on 9 October 2008. Kolchak was educated for a naval career, graduating from the Naval Cadet Corps in 1894 and joining the 7th Naval Battalion of the city. During the Russian Civil War, he established a reactionary government in Siberia—later the Provisional All-Russian Government—and was recognised as the "Supreme Ruler and Commander-in-Chief of All Russian Land and Sea Forces" by the other leaders of the White movement (1918–1920). Kolchak’s government issued a decree on 3 December 1918 stating, "In order to preserve the system and rule of the Supreme Ruler, articles of the criminal code of Imperial Russia were revised, Articles 99 and 100 of which established capital punishment for assassination attempts on the Supreme Ruler and for attempting to overthrow his government. The Russians who fought against the Bolshevik revolutionary government are usually called the White Guards or Whites, in contrast to the Bolshevik Reds (especially their Red Army). Alexander Vasilyevich was born on November 16, 1874 in a suburb of Petersburg into the family of … After a series of coups and countercoups wracked the White government, Kolchak was eventually offered the position of "Supreme Ruler", which he accepted. Her father was privy councilor Fedor Omirov. Izvestia wrote an obscene article saying: 'Tell us, you reptile, how much did they pay you for that?' Political views: Right-wing, former Tsarist-turned pro-PNOR. On 20 January the government in Irkutsk surrendered power to a Bolshevik military committee. Updates? 373–387. Special Publication No.7. The Entente has named Kolchak the Supreme Ruler of Russia. Kolchak's primary mission was to support General Yudenich in his operations against the Ottoman Empire. Lebedev, Paul J. Bubnar, and his staff. Join Facebook to connect with Alexandr Kolchak and others you may know. White Siberia, N.G.O. Returning to Saint Petersburg in April 1905, Kolchak was promoted to lieutenant commander. Age: 36 (January 9, 1883). “With great sorrow, the Chief Board of the Union of the Descendants of Gallipoli informs you that this morning, March 9, 2019, Alexander Rostis Kolchak, grandson of Admiral Alexander V. Kolchak, the Supreme Ruler of Russia, Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army, departed to … Kolchak was born in Saint Petersburg in 1874. A careful investigation failed to determine the cause of the explosion; it could have been accidental or sabotage. Whitepages people search is the most trusted directory. The plan was for three main advances – Gajda to take Archangel, Khanzhin to capture Ufa and the Cossacks under Alexander Dutov to capture Samara and Saratov. He was promoted to vice-admiral in August 1916, the youngest man at that rank, and was made commander of the Black Sea Fleet, replacing Admiral Eberhart. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 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