ISBN 0-87893-702-1 See esp. ", Once he had his theory "by which to work", Darwin was meticulous about gathering and refining evidence as his "prime hobby" before making his idea public. This is sometimes referred to as "phenotypic natural selection". According to Charles Darwin, sexual selection is a type of natural selection and competition for mates along with the development of characteristics that aid reproductive success drive evolution. However, natural selection remained controversial as a mechanism, partly because it was perceived to be too weak to explain the range of observed characteristics of living organisms, and partly because even supporters of evolution balked at its "unguided" and non-progressive nature, a response that has been characterized as the single most significant impediment to the idea's acceptance. zh-classical:天擇 It also sheds light on common afflictions such as depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and sexual disorders. Natural Selection is part of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution that postulates that plant and animal species are capable of incorporating helpful natural mutations that allow members of a species to more successfully reproduce and thrive. Sex-role reversal in vertebrates: behavioural and endocrinological accounts.  The fifth edition of On the Origin of Species published in 1869 included Spencer's phrase as an alternative to natural selection, with credit given: "But the expression often used by Mr. Herbert Spencer, of the Survival of the Fittest, is more accurate, and is sometimes equally convenient. , A portion of all genetic variation is functionally neutral in that it produces no phenotypic effect or significant difference in fitness; the hypothesis that this variation accounts for a large fraction of observed genetic diversity is known as the neutral theory of molecular evolution and was originated by Motoo Kimura. This selective elimination of maladapted individuals from a population is natural selection. Perhaps the most radical claim of the theory of evolution through natural selection is that "elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent on each other in so complex a manner" evolved from the simplest forms of life by a few simple principles. The exuberant tail of the peacock is thought to be the result of sexual selection by females. William James (1842–1910) was the first American psychologist who espoused a different perspective on how psychology should operate. "Suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing by a plant viral protein localized in the nucleus".  For example, a class of heuristic optimization algorithms known as genetic algorithms, pioneered by John Holland in the 1970s and expanded upon by David E. Goldberg, identify optimal solutions by simulated reproduction and mutation of a population of solutions defined by an initial probability distribution. , This is an example of what is known as an evolutionary arms race, in which bacteria continue to develop strains that are less susceptible to antibiotics, while medical researchers continue to develop new antibiotics that can kill them.  Darwin published a detailed account of his evidence and conclusions in On the Origin of Species in 1859. Given enough time, and repeated exposure to the antibiotic, a population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria will emerge. Eyre-Walker A, Woolfit M, Phelps T. (2006). Darwin is sometimes mistaken-ly credited with discovering evolution. Natural Selection before the "Origin of Species".  When such mutations result in a higher fitness, natural selection will favor these phenotypes and the novel trait will spread in the population. Only finches with larger … " Others have developed ideas that human societies and culture evolve by mechanisms that are analogous to those that apply to evolution of species. Finally, the union of some combinations of eggs and sperm might be more compatible than others; this is termed compatibility selection. Natural Selection before the "Origin of Species". Unnatural Selection There's a thriving industry built on the scientific selection of jurors, but the jury is out on just how accurate it is, or whether it gives legal adversaries an edge. The viability of produced gametes can differ, while intragenomic conflicts such as meiotic drive between the haploid gametes can result in gametic or "genic selection". Rice SH. 5 and 6 for a quantitative treatment. The phenotype is the result of the genotype and the environment in which the organism lives (see Genotype-phenotype distinction). It is sometimes summarized as descent with modification.  The struggle for existence was later described by al-Jahiz in the 9th century. This new changed population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is optimally adapted to the context it evolved in. Although a complete theory of evolution also requires an account of how genetic variation arises in the first place (such as by mutation and sexual reproduction) and includes other evolutionary mechanisms (such as gene flow), natural selection is still understood as a fundamental mechanism for evolution. It is directional selection that is illustrated in the antibiotic resistance example above. If the selection forces remain the same for many generations, beneficial alleles become more and more abundant, until they dominate the population, while alleles with a lesser fitness disappear. An individual organism must survive until adulthood before it can reproduce, and selection of those that reach this stage is called viability selection. 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